|Basic layout of the late formation. Note the lack of Ai Pai (挨牌). From second edition 'Ji Xiao Xin Shu (《紀效新書》)'.|
Unfortunately for Qi Ji Guang (戚繼光), political fallout following the death of Zhang Ju Zheng (張居正), then Grand Secretariat of the Ming Dynasty, eventually caught up with him. After serving at Ji Garrison for sixteen years, Qi Ji Guang was sidelined to Guangdong, a relatively unimportant post, before being discharged from military service altogether. Disheartened and having nothing better to do, Qi Ji Guang began reorganising his life's works and military experience and wrote the second edition of Ji Xiao Xin Shu (《紀效新書》).
Back to square one
|Rendition of a full Mandarin Duck squad, without its squad leader and porter. This image is cropped, edited and pieced together from the training manuals of 'Ji Xiao Xin Shu (《紀效新書》)'. Weapons are edited to show realistic length.|
Qi Ji Guang also incorporated the idea of dual role unit into this Mandarin Duck squad. Javelins were given back to the swordsmen, troops armed with Lang Xian were given swords (Lang Xian was considered "long reach" weapon), pikemen given either bows or crossbows (depending on his skill in archery), and troops armed with Tang Pa were equipped with rockets. Additionally, entire squad could be armoured in Qi Jia (緝甲) designed by Qi Ji Guang, most probably inspired by the iron armour of Northern troops. Qi Ji Guang also advised that every arquebusier should be given a Chang Dao (長刀).
While Qi Ji Guang attempted to implement this revised formation to Guangdong troops during his office at Guangdong, he was relieved from duty too soon to had any chance of succeed. However, his ex-subordinates from Zhejiang probably picked up his book and at least tried to implement it after his death. This version of Mandarin Duck Formation was later taught to Koreans during the interbellum of Imjin war.
Other blog posts in my Mandarin Duck Formation series:
Mi Zhan — the original Yuan Yang Zhen
Qi Ji Guang's Yuan Yang Zhen — part 1
Qi Ji Guang's Yuan Yang Zhen — part 2
Qi Ji Guang's Yuan Yang Zhen — part 3
Qi Ji Guang's Yuan Yang Zhen — part 4
Qi Ji Guang's Yuan Yang Zhen — part 5
Qi Ji Guang's Yuan Yang Zhen — part 6
Xu Guang Qi's Yuan Yang Wu