Bai Da Yao Pu (《白打要譜》, lit. 'Essential Manual on Boxing')
Unarmed combat manual redacted by Wang Bo Yan (王伯言). Unfortunately, not much else is known about this manual.
Wen Jia Quan (溫家拳, lit. 'Fist of House Wen')
An unarmed combat system which was apparently quite famous during Ming period, and referenced in multiple military treatises. The system included Qi Shi Er Xing Quan (七十二行拳, lit. 'Seventy-two walking fists'), San Shi Liu He Suo (三十六合鎖, lit. 'Thirty-six combining locks') and Er Shi Si Xun Tui (二十四棄尋腿, lit. 'Twenty-four seeking kicks'), Shi Er Duan (十二短, lit. 'Twelve short strikes'), and Ba Shan Fan (八閃番, lit. 'Eight tumbling dodges' or 'Eight rapid dodges').
Modern Cuo Jiao Fan Zi Quan (戳脚翻子拳) might be descended from Ba Shan Fan.
Unnamed double sabres techniques of Lady Wa (瓦氏夫人)
Double sabres techniques attributed to Lady Wa (瓦氏夫人), famous leader of the Lang Bing (狼兵), and her twenty-four elite bodyguards. Taught to Wu Shu (吳殳) by Xiang Yuan Chi (項元池), Wu Shu would later modify it with sword techniques learned from Yu Yang Lao Ren (漁陽老人).
Sword techniques of Yu Yang Lao Ren (漁陽老人, lit. 'Old man from Yu Yang*')
Sword techniques taught to Wu Shu (吳殳) by a mysterious old man known as Yu Yang Lao Ren (漁陽老人). Wu Shu later incorporated some of his teachings into his double sabres techniques (replacing his right hand sabre with a sword) and Dan Dao Fa Shi Ba Shi (單刀法十八勢).
Wu Shu composed two proses known as Jian Jue (《劍訣》, lit. 'Sword verses') and Hou Jian Jue (《後劍訣》, lit. 'Later sword verses') respectively, that hint at some concepts of the system. There's actually some attempts of reconstruction using the proses as the basis.
*Note: Yu Yang (漁陽) is the former name of Ji County.
Unnamed double swords techniques from Wu Bian Qian Ji (《武編前集》)
A series of short verses containing instructions on swordplays (or sword dance) using two swords. It was apparently not understood even by contemporary Ming Chinese. Mao Yuan Yi (茅元儀) later compiled an incomplete version of these verses together with the manual of Chao Xian Shi Fa (《朝鮮勢法》).
(Mention only) Bian Zhuang Zhi Fen Jiao Fa (卞莊之紛絞法, lit. 'Feng Zhuang's winding techniques')
Sword techniques attributed to Bian Zhuang Zi (卞莊子), a Spring and Autumn period swordsman famous for killing two tigers with one sword. Mentioned in by He Liang Chen (何良臣) in his book Zhen Ji (《陣紀》).
(Mention only) Wang Ju Zhi Qi Luo Fa (王聚之起落法, lit. 'Wang Ju's rise and fall techniques')
Sword techniques attributed to Wang Ju (王聚), also known as Wang Yue (王越), a famous swordsman that lived during Three Kingdom period. Mentioned in by He Liang Chen (何良臣) in his book Zhen Ji (《陣紀》).
(Mention only) Liu Xian Zhu Zhi Gu Ying Fa (劉先主之顧應法, lit. 'Former Lord Liu's cover and response techniques')
Sword techniques attributed to Liu Bei (劉備), warlord and later emperor of Shu Han (蜀漢) during Three Kingdom period. In the Romance, he famously wielded a pair of swords. Mentioned in by He Liang Chen (何良臣) in his book Zhen Ji (《陣紀》).
(Mention only) Ma Ming Wang Zhi Shan Dian Fa (馬明王之閃電法, lit. 'Wisdom King Ma's lightning techniques')
Sword techniques attributed to Ma Ming Wang (馬明王), a mythological figure possibly related to famous Ming general Ma Fang (馬芳). Mentioned in by He Liang Chen (何良臣) in his book Zhen Ji (《陣紀》).
(Mention only) Ma Chao Zhi Chu Shou Fa (馬超之出手法, lit. 'Ma Chao's draw techniques')
Sword techniques attributed Ma Chao (馬超), one of the Five Tiger Generals under Liu Bei. Mentioned in by He Liang Chen (何良臣) in his book Zhen Ji (《陣紀》).
Jing Chu Chang Jian (荊楚長劍, lit. 'Long Sword of Jingchu')
A longsword system passed down by Li Liang Qin (李良欽) to Yu Da You (俞大猷). It might actually be a quarterstaff system known as Yu Jia Gun (俞家棍).
Qing Tian Gun (青田棍, lit. 'Qingtian quarterstaff')
A quarterstaff system mentioned by Qi Ji Guang (戚繼光) in Ji Xiao Xin Shu (《紀效新書》), as well as several other books. It was closely related to Shao Lin Gun Fa (少林棍法). This system was still practiced during Qing period, and might had survived until Republican period, but gradually went extinct.
Ba Zi Quan Gun (巴子拳棍, lit. 'Fist and staff of Ba Zi')
Another quarterstaff system mentioned in Ji Xiao Xin Shu (《紀效新書》). Many modern Bajiquan schools consider Ba Zi Quan Gun to be the progenitor of their arts, although this view is challenged by some historians.
Sun Jia Yin Shou Gun (孫家陰手棍, lit. 'Negative grip quarterstaff of House Sun')
A quarterstaff system mentioned in Shao Lin Gun Fa Chan Zong (《少林棍法闡宗》). Its relation with the Shaolin version of Yin Shou Gun (陰手棍) is unknown.
SPEAR & PIKE
Li Jia Duan Qiang (李家短鎗, lit. 'Short spear of House Li')
Short spear mentioned in by He Liang Chen (何良臣) in his book Zhen Ji (《陣紀》).
Sha Jia Gan Zi (沙家竿子, lit. 'Pole of House Sha')
Also known as Sha Jia Qiang (沙家鎗, lit. 'Spear of House Sha') or Sha Jia Shi Ba Xia Dao Shou Gan Zi (沙家十八下倒手竿子, lit. 'Eighteen flipped hand pole of House Sha'), this is a spear system that utilises a one zhang eight chi to two zhang four chi bamboo pike. It put great emphasis on footwork.
Han Shi Qiang Fa (韓氏鎗法, lit. 'Spear techniques of Han Family')
Spear techniques of Han Jing Yu (韓晶宇) and his son. Shi Jing Yan (石敬岩), master of Wu Shu (吳殳), briefly studied from them.
He Nan Qiang Fa (河南鎗法, lit. 'Spear techniques from Henan')
A spear system probably related to Yang Jia Qiang (楊家鎗, lit. 'Spear of House Yang') that utilises a particularly heavy pike. One of the more well known users of this system was Li Ke Fu (李克復), master of Cheng Zong You (程宗猷). Cheng Zong You's Cha Kou Qiang (汊口鎗) was based on this system.
Qi Ji Guang (戚繼光) criticised this system as "excelled at spear handling but lacking in footwork". However his opinion was later refuted by Cheng Zong You.
Jin Jia Qiang (金家鎗, lit. 'Spear of House Jin')
A spear system mentioned by Zheng Ruo Ceng (鄭若曾) in his book Jiang Nan Jing Lue (《江南經略》). Not much is known about this system.
(Mention only) Zhang Fei Shen Qiang (張飛神鎗, lit. 'Divine spear of Zhang Fei')
Spear techniques attributed to Zhang Fei (張飛), sworn brother and one of the Five Tiger Generals of Liu Bei, who famously wielded a snake spear in battle in the Romance. Mentioned by Zheng Ruo Ceng (鄭若曾) in his book Jiang Nan Jing Lue (《江南經略》).
(Mention only) Wu Xian Shen Qiang (五顯神鎗, lit. 'Divine spear of Wu Xian')
Spear techniques attributed to Wu Xian Da Di (五顯大帝), five Chinese deities associated with wealth. Also known as Hua Qiang Qi Shi Er Shi (花鎗七十二勢, lit. 'Seventy-two stances of Flower Spear'). Mentioned by Zheng Ruo Ceng (鄭若曾) in his book Jiang Nan Jing Lue (《江南經略》).
**Disclaimer** I do not practice martial arts, but I do love to read about them. That being said, I am aware that researching martial art...
This blog post was originally meant to be part of my 100th post rambling , but that one kind of drag on for too long, so I decided to write...
Drawings of various types of Ming Dynasty swords and sabres. From left to right: Two Jian , a Yao Dao, a Chang Dao, and a Duan Dao. Fro...
Left: An unnamed Ming Jin Yi Wei (錦衣衛, lit. 'Brocade-clad guard') in parade gear. Middle: Fu De (富德), a Manchu general of Pla...
Drawing of a Gou Qiang, from 'Lian Bing Za Ji (《練兵雜紀》)'. A Gou Qiang (鈎鎗, barbed spear) is a cavalry spear with two or three ba...
The Ming army had always put great emphasis on handheld firearm, and set up the first specialized firearm division in the world in the form...
Section of the Ming Dynasty scroll painting 'Chu Jing Tu (《出警图》)', depicting armoured guards on parade. The guardsman in the middl...
Repeating crossbow is one of the unique inventions of China. Although the invention is commonly attributed to Zhu Ge Liang (诸葛亮) , the basic...