|A string of caltrops, from 'Ji Xiao Xin Shu (《紀效新書》)'.|
Beside deploying caltrops via normal means, Ming Chinese also used grenades, land mines and explosive shells filled with caltrops.
Standard, four-pointed caltrop is sometimes known as Ling Jiao (菱角, lit. 'Water caltrop'), while caltrop cooked in human feces to inflict infection is called Gui Jian (鬼箭).
|A four-pointed wooden caltrop (lower left) and two four-pointed iron caltrops (lower right), from 'Wu Bei Zhi (《武備志》)'.|
|A multi-point iron caltrop (highlighted), from 'Wu Bei Zhi (《武備志》)'.|