Ming Dynasty derogatory terms for outlaws, foreigners and barbarians

Although most of these terms can be translated to "barbarian" in English, each of these words has different meaning in Chinese and cannot be used interchangeably.


BY ETHNICITY/NATIONALITY
Man (蠻)
Used to mean "Southern barbarian". It meant "barbaric foreigner" during Ming period.

Lu (虜)
Northern nomadic barbarian like the Mongols.

Fan (番 or 蕃)
Primitive barbarian or tribal barbarian.

Yi (夷)
Foreign barbarian.



BY PROFESSION/SOCIAL STATUS
Dao (盜)
Thief.

Kou (寇)
Robber, bandit or pirate. Outlaw.

Zei (賊)
Traitor or "hated enemy". In modern Chinese, it means "thief".

Di (敵)
Enemy. This term is more neutral than Zei.



SPECIFIC GROUP
Wo (倭)
Japanese. This term did not have strong negative connotation back then.

Da Da (鞑靼)
Tatars. This term was applied to many different groups such as Turks, Mongols, Jurchens, etc.

Tu Fan (吐蕃)
Tibetans.

Fo Lang Ji (佛朗機)
Chinese transcription of the word "Franks", referring to Portuguese.

Lu Song (呂宋)
Chine transcription of the word "Luzon", referring to Luzon island of Philippines. After the Spanish colonisation of Philippines, this term was applied to the Spanish as well.

Ao Yi (澳夷)
Literally "Macao barbarian", referring to Portuguese.

Hong Yi (紅夷)
Literally "Red barbarian", referring to Dutch.

Hei Fan Gui (黑番鬼)
Literally "Black barbarian ghost", referring to Negrito people (Southeast Asia).

Ji Hei Fan (極黑番)
Literally "Extremely black barbarian", referring to Negro people (South Africa).



OBSOLETE
Rong (戎)
Western barbarian.

Di (狄)
Northern barbarian.

Hu (胡)
Non-Chinese or nomadic barbarian.

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