Ming Dynasty black powder formulas

REFERENCE
Standard Black Powder Formula

75% Saltpetre (Potassium Nitrate) : 15% Softwood charcoal : 10% Sulfur


Formulas For Matchlock Guns
Ji Xiao Xin Shu (《紀效新書》) c.a. 1560AD
75.76% Saltpetre : 13.65% Softwood charcoal : 10.61% Sulfur

Wu Lue Shen Ji (《武略神機》) c.a. 1562AD
78.74% Saltpetre : 13.39% Softwood charcoal : 7.87% Sulfur

Shen Qi Pu (《神器譜》) c.a 1598AD
(Northern arquebus) 83.33% Saltpetre : 12.50% Softwood charcoal : 4.17% Sulfur
(Southern arquebus) 80.66% Saltpetre : 13.70% Softwood charcoal : 5.64% Sulfur

Bing Lu (《兵錄》) c.a. 1606AD
75.75% Saltpetre : 13.65% Softwood charcoal : 10.6% Sulfur

Wu Bei Zhi (《武備志》) c.a. 1621AD
93.60% Saltpetre : 4% Softwood charcoal : 2.3% Sulfur
*NOTE: This formula is dysfunctional and very likely erroneous.

Jin Tang Jie Zhu Shi Er Chou (《金湯借箸十二籌》) c.a. 1630AD
81.16% Saltpetre : 7.25% Softwood charcoal : 11.59% Sulfur

Huo Gong Qie Yao (《火攻挈要》) c.a. 1643AD
81.16% Saltpetre : 7.25% Softwood charcoal : 11.59% Sulfur
*NOTE: Co-authored by Johann Adam Schall von Bell.



Black Powder Formula For Bombs and Rocket Warheads
Shen Huo (神火, lit. 'Divine fire')
Primary ingredient: Saltpetre, Softwood charcoal, Sulfur
Secondary ingredient: Realgar
Tertiary ingredient: Opriment, Heartbreak grass, Arsenic,  Aconitum Kusnezoffii Reichb, Onchidium verruculatum, Euphorbia kansui, Viper, Rosin, Ligusticum striatum and Mongolian milkvetch, Cooked purging croton, Clemetis, Common reed flower, Dried Feces

Du Huo (毒火, lit. 'Poisonous fire')
Fa Huo (法火, lit. 'Magic fire')
Fei Huo (飛火, lit. 'Flying fire')
Lie Huo (烈火, lit. 'Raging fire')
Lan Huo (爛火, lit. 'Festering fire')
Ming Huo (明火, lit. 'Bright fire')

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