For the purpose of this article, I will exclude fire lances (as these are proto-guns), Pen Tong (喷筒) (as these do not shoot bullets), rockets, dart guns and bombs. Only bamboo or wooden guns meant as low-cost substitute for metal firearms will be covered.
Zhu Huo Qiang (竹火鎗, bamboo handgonne)
|Drawing of a Zhu Huo Qiang, from 'Wu Bei Zhi (《武備志》)'.|
Zhu Huo Qiang is a simple, three chi long bamboo tube turned into a handgonne. It is reinforced with hemp rope and iron wire to reduce the risk of bursting.
Ye Di Zhu Chong (夜敵竹銃, lit. 'Night raid bamboo gun')
|Ye Di Zhu Chong, from 'Wu Bei Zhi (《武備志》)'/|
Ye Di Zhu Chong is simply a bundle of (usually eight) leather band-reinforced bamboo guns loaded with incendiary projectiles. Like its namesake, it is used in night raids.
Chong Feng Zhui Di Zhu Fa Gong (衝鋒追敵竹發熕, lit. 'Assaulting and enemy-chasing bamboo Fa Gong')
|Drawing of a Chong Feng Ye Di Zhu Fa Gong, from 'Wu Bei Zhi (《武備志》)'.|
Chong Feng Zhui Di Zhu Fa Gong is a bamboo cannon that also doubles as a large Pen Tong (噴筒). It is a three chi long bamboo tube mounted on a two chi long wooden pole. The bamboo tube is treated with chemicals, wrapped with iron wires, cow tendons and hemp cloths, covered with ash, and then lacquered. Its muzzle is also reinforced with an iron hoop.
Chong Feng Zhui Di Zhu Fa Gong is usually loaded with twenty-four half catty stones, poisoned shrapnels, poison smoke gunpowder and blinding dust. It is very heavy for a handheld firearm (its stone ammunition alone weight twelve catties), but packs the firepower of a fairly large (if short ranged) cannon. It is still light enough that one horseman can carry up to four tubes with him.
Zhu Fa Gong (竹發熕, Bamboo Fa Gong)
|Drawing of a Zhu Fa Gong, from 'Wu Bei Yao Lue (《武備要略》)'.|
A seemingly different Zhu Fa Gong can be found in Wu Bei Yao Lue (《武備要略》). This Zhu Fa Gong is a five chi long bamboo tube treated with chemicals and reinforced with hemp rope. It also comes with iron sight.
Wu Di Zhu Jiang Jun (無敵竹將軍, lit. 'Invincible bamboo general')
|Drawings of Wu Di Zhu Jiang Jun, from 'Wu Bei Zhi (《武備志》)'.|
Wu Di Zhu Jiang Jun is usually loaded with one large stone ball and numerous lead shots and iron shrapnels, but sometimes only one stone ball is used. A unique feature of Wu Di Zhu Jiang Jun is that it utilises a cup-shaped iron sabot to reduce windage. While it is very light, it is too powerful to be used handheld, and is usually placed on a X-shaped wooden rack before firing.
Xiao Zhu Jiang Jun (小竹將軍, lit. 'Small bamboo general')
|Xiao Zhu Jiang Jun and the bags used to store it, from 'Huo Long Shen Qi Zhen Fa (《火龍神器陣法》)'.|
Zhu Niao Chong (竹鳥銃, bamboo arquebus)
|A bamboo arquebus with a trigger guard, from 'Yu Zi Shi San Zhong Mi Shu Bing Heng (《喻子十三種秘書兵衡》)'.|
Mu Shen Qiang (木神鎗, lit. 'Wooden divine gun')
|Drawing of a Mu Shen Qiang (highlighted), from 'Si Zhen San Guan Zhi (《四鎮三關志》)'.|
The cannon that exploded during the Siege of Sacheon and resulted in a humiliating defeat for the Ming, was in fact a wooden cannon.
Liu He Pao (六合砲, lit. 'Six harmonies cannon')
|Drawing of a Liu He Pao, from 'Wu Bei Yao Lue (《武備要略》)'.|
Liu He Pao is a type of wooden cannon that is made of six staves assembled around a short iron tube and then reinforced with seven iron hoops. It is literally made in the same fashion as a wine barrel. The iron tube, which forms the inner part of the second reinforce (i.e. the bottom part of the barrel), prevents the cannon from bursting easily.
Liu He Pao can be mounted on small boats, in a fashion not too dissimilar to a punt gun.
|A wooden breech-loading cannon, from 'Wu Bei Yao Lue (《武備要略》)'.|
Other Bamboo and Wooden Guns
Bamboo version of San Yan Chong (三眼銃) and Da Jiang Jun Pao (大將軍砲) were used by the Ming armies as well.