Multiple barrel arquebuses of the Ming Dynasty

The Xun Lei Chong (迅雷銃) was but an early experiment of Zhao Shi Zhen (趙世楨) to develop a multiple barrel firearm. Although Xun Lei Chong was a failure, Zhao Shi Zhen did manage to create several more practical weapons.

Zhen Die Chong (震疊銃, lit. 'Terror arquebus')
Ming Dynasty Double-Barreled Matchlock Gun
Drawing of a Zhen Die Chong, from 'Shen Qi Pu (《神器譜》)'.
Zhen Die Chong is a double-barreled matchlock arquebus with over/under configuration. It has a modified Lu Mi Chong (魯密銃) matchlock mechanism that has a unique 'twin serpentine'. It allows the gunner to discharge two shots in quick succession by removing the slow match from one serpentine and then reattach it to another serpentine. 


Qi Sheng Chong (奇勝銃, lit. 'Surprise victory arquebus')
Ming Dynasty Shotgun
Side (above) and top (below) view of Qi Sheng Chong, from 'Shen Qi Pu (《神器譜》)'.
Qi Sheng Chong is a double-barreled arquebus with side-by-side configuration. Similar to Zhen Die Chong, this weapon allows the gunner to discharge two shots in quick succession.

Qi Sheng Chong has a bar grip installed near its trigger, and a strap under its barrel. It can be overturned and used as a shield if needed be.


Yi Hu Chong (翼虎銃, lit. 'Winged tiger arquebus')
Ming Dynasty Triple-barreled Matchlock Gun
Side (above) and top (below) view of Yi Hu Chong, from 'Shen Qi Pu (《神器譜》)'.
Yi Hu Chong is a triple-barreled arquebus with side-by-side configuration. Unlike its double-barreled counterparts, Yi Hu Chong has two separate matchlock mechanisms. It has shorter barrels than other matchlock gun to offset the extra weight brought about by multiple barrels. The shorter length of Yi Hu Chong also allows the weapon to be used comfortably on horseback.

Like Qi Sheng Chong, Yi Hu Chong can be used as a shield.

Ming Chinese using arquebus as shield
Highlighted: An arquebusier overturns his Yi Hu Chong and use it as a shield to fend off a spearman. from 'Shen Qi Pu (《神器譜》)'.


Xuan Ji Yi Hu (旋機翼虎, lit. 'Rotating mechanism winged tiger')
Ming Dynasty Turnover Matchlock Gun
Xuan Ji Yi Hu, from 'Shen Qi Pu (《神器譜》)'.
Xuan Ji Yi Hu is the improved version of Yi Hu Chong. Xuan Ji Yi Hu has only one matchlock mechanism, and its three barrels are arranged in a triangle layout. It allows for high rate of fire by hand-rotating the barrels. Like Yi Hu Chong, it can be used on horseback.

Triple-barreled Matchlock Revolver
A North Italian triple-barreled turnover matchlock pistol ca.1540. This weapon predates Xuan Ji Yi Hu by at least sixty years. (Source: Ethnographic Arms & Armour Forum)
Repeating firearms with similar workings are known as "Turnover gun" or "Pepper-box" in the West. 

No comments:

Post a Comment

StatCounter