Jia Ban Chuan (夾板船/甲板船)

17th century Sailing Ship
Drawing of a European sailing ship, probably a Portuguese East Indiaman, from 'Jing Guo Xiong Lue (《經國雄略》)'.
The name Jia Ban Chuan (夾板船 or 甲板船) comes from the Chinese transcription of Malay word "Kapal", meaning ship. Jia Ban Chuan specifically refers to European great ships of the age of sail. The gigantic size and enormous firepower of European warships outclassed even the strongest of Chinese warships, and impressed the Chinese very much.

Chinese attempts to imitate European design were met with limited success. Ironically, the most successful of these attempts came not from the Ming Dynasty, but from the Chinese pirate-turned-admiral Zheng Zhi Long (鄭芝龍), also known by his Baptismal name as Nicholas Iquan Gaspard. Unfortunately, Zheng's fleet of European-influenced war junks was destroyed by a Dutch surprise attack before ever seeing combat.

LA VILLE ET LE CHATEAU DE ZELANDIA DANS L'ISLE DE TOYOVAN, EN CHINE
A giant junk can be seen at the lower left corner of this engraving. LA VILLE ET LE CHATEAU DE ZELANDIA DANS L'ISLE DE TOYOVAN, EN CHINE (1670) c1729. 
Even then, the most powerful of the European-influenced war junks are only about equivalent to a fifth-rate ship – powerful enough to go against merchantmen and armed escorts of the East India companies on more or less equal term, but still miles behind any serious navy of the European powers.

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