|Drawing of a European sailing ship, probably a Portuguese East Indiaman, from 'Jing Guo Xiong Lue (《經國雄略》)'.|
Chinese attempts to imitate European design were met with limited success. Ironically, the most successful of these attempts came not from the Ming Dynasty, but from the Chinese pirate-turned-admiral Zheng Zhi Long (鄭芝龍), also known by his Baptismal name as Nicholas Iquan Gaspard. Unfortunately, Zheng's fleet of European-influenced war junks was destroyed by a Dutch surprise attack before ever seeing combat.
|A giant junk can be seen at the lower left corner of this engraving. LA VILLE ET LE CHATEAU DE ZELANDIA DANS L'ISLE DE TOYOVAN, EN CHINE (1670) c1729.|