Flintlocks of the Ming Dynasty

Ming Chinese Flintlock Musket
Drawing of a Zi Sheng Huo Chong, from 'Jun Qi Tu Shuo (《軍器圖說》)'.
Seventeenth century military treatise Jun Qi Tu Shuo (《軍器圖說》) was the first Chinese military treatise to record a flintlock firearm. Known to the Chinese as Zi Sheng Huo Chong (自生火銃, lit. 'Self fire-generating arquebus'), this gun shows many Western (particularly Portuguese) influence, and seems to be based on a miquelet lock design, rather than a true flintlock. It never entered service.

Wu Bei Yao Lue (《武備要略》) also mentions a special arquebus that is "faster and more convenient than both matchlock and flintlock", known as Fu Shou Ji (伏手機, lit. 'Hidden hand machine'), used by the peasant rebels. Ming army reverse-engineered the design, and named it Li Gong Guai (李公拐, lit. 'Master Li's crutch').

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